Tramadol is an analgesic of central action that helps to ease the physical condition after serious injuries, surgical operations, with advanced oncological processes. It is used strictly by prescription and is not available for free sale.

The active substance of the drug, penetrating into the blood, binds to opioid receptors of various types in the brain and spinal cord. As a result, the production of pain neurotransmitters decreases, the conduction of neurons is inhibited. The intensity of painful sensations decreases; among other things, due to the effect of Tramadol on the receptors of the digestive tract:

• the drug inhibits the work of both cerebral hemispheres;

• it has a calming effect;

• it slows down the cough reflex;

• it affects the respiratory center.

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The effect of the application develops after 15-20 minutes and lasts up to 6 hours, depending on the intensity of the pain syndrome. The most effective dosage form is an injectable solution. With prolonged use, the analgesic effect of Tramadol decreases, the body requires a large concentration of it.

The drug is metabolized in the liver tissues, part of it is excreted unchanged by the kidneys. The half-life of Tramadol can be delayed up to 2 days or more in cholecystitis, hepatitis, hepatosis and other hepatic pathologies. The effect of the drug on the body continues at the same time.

Indications for use

The drug is used to reduce and eliminate pain syndrome of various origins:

• with physical injuries: dislocations, fractures, soft tissue ruptures, severe burns;

• consequences of surgical interventions;

• during invasive painful diagnostic procedures;

• in the late stages of malignant oncological tumors;

• after suffering a myocardial infarction;

• with neurological manifestations.

Injectable forms of the drug, pills, capsules and suppositories are allowed for adults and children over 14 years old. Tramadol in drops can be used in patients from 1 year.

How to use Tramadol: instructions

The drug is prescribed by a doctor in short courses as a symptomatic drug. The scheme of application and dosage depend on the physical condition and age of patients.

Instructions for oral solution: patients from 14 years — 20 drops with a spoonful of sugar or water, 1 time a day. If necessary, it is allowed to repeat the reception after 1-2 hours. Children under 14 years of age are prescribed the drug at the rate of 1 mg per 1 kg of body weight.

Pills and capsules are taken with water before or after meals. Daily dose is 50 mg. With severe pain, an increase to 400 mg is possible.

Tramadol injections are given subcutaneously, intravenously or intramuscularly. Before administration, the contents of the ampoules are diluted in saline. Daily doses of the drug range from 50 to 400 mg. Time intervals between injections are 4-6 hours.

Elderly people suffering from reduced liver or kidney function are recommended to reduce the dose of Tramadol by half.

Contradictions

The use of analgesic in all forms is excluded in case of individual intolerance to active and auxiliary substances, alcohol abuse or poisoning, dependence on psychoactive substances. Other contraindications include:

• suicidal tendencies, severe clinical depression;

• renal and hepatic insufficiency;

• undergoing a course of treatment with some psychotropic drugs;

• epilepsy that cannot be corrected with drugs;

• period during the first trimester of pregnancy.

In late pregnancy and lactation, Tramadol is prescribed in exceptional cases according to individual indications.

Side effects

Against the background of using the drug, dizziness, general lethargy, increased drowsiness, decreased appetite and nausea are possible. In rare cases, and after overdoses develop:

• impaired coordination of movements;

• tachycardia;

• visual or auditory hallucinations;

• respiratory depression;

• vomiting, diarrhea;

• abdominal cramps;

• skin itching.

When intoxicated with the drug, there may be: urinary retention, confusion or loss of consciousness, vascular collapse, convulsions. In women, with prolonged use, a violation of the menstrual cycle is likely. It is characteristic that prolonged use of the drug leads to drug dependence.

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